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Conference Paper
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Policing in Federal Countries

Brazil Canada Structure of policing in Canada While the federal government is responsible for t The RCMP is a federal police force. It is governed by the RCMP Act and has a number of responsibilities. Some of which are: Enforcement of federal statutes Protection of foreign missions and important Canadian figures Contract policing to eight provinces, three territories and about 200 municipalities United Nations policing duties abroad Provision of a range of operational support services to all police in Canada. Such services include forensic laboratories, police information systems, identification, and advanced police training. Provincial police acts set out the terms by which police are governed. The acts can require that cities and towns, upon reaching a certain population size, maintain their own police force. Municipalities have three options when providing municipal policing services: form their own police force, join an existing municipal police force, or enter into an agreement with a provincial police force or the RCMP. In addition to the municipal, provincial and federal police forces, there are also a number of First Nations policing agreements for Aboriginal communities across Canada. Federal police powers The Royal Canadian Mounted Police enforces federal statues and all laws made by, or under, the authority of the Canadian Parliament. Provincial police powers Provincial police forces enforce the Criminal Code and provincial statues within each province or areas that are not served by a municipal police force (i.e. small towns or rural areas). Municipal Police powers Municipal police forces enforce the Criminal Code, provincial statues, and municipal by-laws within the specific boundaries of a municipality or within several adjoining municipalities which make up a region (e.g. Durham Regional Police). Where a municipal policing contract is granted to a provincial force or to the RCMP, these police agencies automatically assume municipal police powers. As well, where a provincial policing contract is granted to the RCMP, the RCMP automatically assumes For many police forces, regionalization is the most cost-effective and efficient way of doing business. For example, at the local level, municipal police forces have joined together with other municipalities and rural areas to create a regional police se These benefits are the same for the RCMP which significantly changed its service delivery model through regionalization. The purpose of the RCMP’s regionalization initiative was to ensure a closer relationship between operational and corporate responsibi Financial Arrangements Where there are municipal and provincial contracts, the municipal and provincial government is responsible for funding their respective police forces. Where RCMP is granted a policing contract to police a municipality, under the billing agreement, munici The Structure of Policing in India The Catalan Case Overview of State Responsibilities American Indian Reservations Institutional Arrangements between Federal and State Police Departments Reporting Arrangements Cost Sharing/Fiscal Arrangement/ Financial Arrangements