Public security must protect the public from threats and increasingly respond to the rise of transnational crime and terrorism in the current environment. These threats challenge existing security and enforcement arrangements in federal countries. Public security apparatuses in federal countries contain a plethora of agencies and institutions at different levels of government tasked with enforcement and security functions.
Federations typically established security institutions with specific mandates in mind but thanks to a changing world, responsibilities are not quite as clear-cut as envisaged. Overlapping mandates, mission creep and different institutional cultures often lead to inter-service competition rather than cooperation. These challenges create operational problems and hinder effective public security management, requiring time and effort to research and disseminate effective systems.