Intergovernmental relations (IGR) are a universal dimension of any federation. IGR outlines the types and flows of communication and relations within and between levels of government. Accordingly, all federal regimes (regardless of unification or devolution, dualist or integrated, with or without a federal chamber, parliamentary or a presidential system) require successful IGR to operate.
Through IGR, federal partners pursue a wide variety of objectives from information-sharing to policy coordination, from the elaboration of joint projects to collaborative law (or treaty) making, from joint-bodies to establishing mechanisms for dispute resolution. A range of factors drives the need to manage intergovernmental relations. These factors include constitutional ambiguity, fiscal relations, public policy interdependence, investment and trade, infrastructure management, environmental protection, policing and security, and the sharing of resources.